Wine is the result of a fascinating process concerning the alcoholic fermentation of the sugars within the grape juice.
The process has been described for the first time by the french Gay Lussac in the second half of 1700, but only 100 years after was possible understanding the chemical interaction.
That undergoes when Wis Pasteur discovered the existance of yeasts, unicellular organisms responsable of the fermentation.
So, the modern enology began in 1866, even if the wine most probably is the oldest beverage created by men. There is a theory substaining that since the Neolitic Era, men used to produce a beverage from the grapes, quite similar to wine-still, only in the last 3 decades enology has made its major progress, managing to receive the best grapes could offer and producing better and better wines...